« Microsoft Windows Azure Development Cookbook Review | Main | Accessing Windows Azure REST APIs with cURL »

September 11, 2011

Demystifying physicalDirectory or How to Configure the Site Entry in the Service Definition File for Windows Azure

If you played a bit more with the sites configuration in Windows Azure you may have discovered some inconsistent behavior between what Visual Studio does and what the cspack.exe command line does when it relates to physicalDirecroty attribute. I certainly did! Here is the problem I encountered while trying to deploy PHP on Windows Azure.


Project Folder Structure

I was following the instructions on Installing PHP on Windows Azure leveraging Full IIS Support but decided to leverage the help of Visual Studio instead building the package by hand. Not a good idea for this particular scenario :( After creating my cloud solution in Visual Studio I ended up with the following folder structure:

+ PHPonAzureSol

     + PHPonAzure


          - ServiceConfiguration.cscfg

          - ServiceDefinition.csdef

     + PHPRole


          + bin

               - install-php.cmd

               - install-php-azure.cmd

          + PHP-Azure

               - php-azure.dll

          + Sites

               + PHP

                    - index.php

          + WebPI-cmd




  • PHPonAzureSol was my VS solution folder
  • PHPonAzure was my VS project folder containing the CSDEF and CSCFG files
  • and PHPRole was my VS project folder containing the code for my web role

The PHPRole folder contained the WebPI command line tool needed to install PHP in the cloud stored in the WebPI-cmd subfolder; the PHP extensions for Azure in the PHP-Azure subfolder; the installation scripts in the bin subfolder; and most importantly my PHP pages in Sites\PHP subfolder (in this case I had simple index.php page containing phpinfo()).


Configuring Site Entry in the CSCFG File

Of course my goal was to configure the site to point to the folder where my PHP files were stored. In this particular case this was the PHPonAzureSol\PHPRole\Sites\PHP folder if you follow the structure above. This is simply done by adding the physicalDirectory attribute to the Site tag in CSDEF. Here is how my Site tag looked like:


<Site name="Web" physicalDirectory="..\PHPRole\Sites\PHP">
          <Binding name="Endpoint1" endpointName="Endpoint1" />



My expectation was that with this setting in CSDEF IIS will be configured to point to the content that comes from the physicalDirectory folder. Hence if I type the URL of my Windows Azure hosted service I should be able to see the index.php page (i.e. http://[my-hosted-service].cloudapp.net should point to your PHP code).


Visual Studio handling of physicalDirectory attribute

Of course when I used Visual Studio to pack and deploy my Web Role I was unpleasantly surprised. It seems Visual Studio ignores the physicalDirectory attribute from your CSDEF file, and points the site to your Web Role’s approot folder (or the content from PHPRole folder if you follow the structure above). Thus if I wanted to access my PHP page I had to type the following URL:




Not exactly what I wanted :(

The reason for this is that Visual Studio calls cspack.exe with additional options (either /sitePhysicalDirectories or /sites) that overwrite the physicalDirectory attribute from CSDEF. As of now I am not aware of a way to change this behavior in VS.

Update (9-12-2011): As it seems VS ignores the physicalDirectory attribute ONLY if your web site is called Web (i.e. name="Web" as in the example above). If you rename the site to something else (name="PHPWeb" for example) you will end up with the expected behavior described below. Unfortunately name="Web" is the default setting, and this may result in unexpected behavior for your application.


cspack.exe handling of physicalDirectory attribute

Solution to the problem is to call cspack.exe from the command line (without the above mentioned options of course:)).

There are few gotchas about how you call cspack.exe using the folder structure that Visual Studio creates. After few trial-and-errors where I received several of those errors:


Error: Could not find a part of the path '[some-path-here]'.


I figured out that you should call cspack.exe from the solution folder (PHPonAzureSol in the above structure). Once I did this everything worked fine and I was able to access my index.php by just typing my hosted service’s URL.


How physicalDirectory attribute works?

For those of you interested how the physicalDirectory attribute works here is a simple explanation.

MSDN documentation for How to Configure a Web Role for Multiple Web Sites points out that physicalDirectory attribute value is relative to the location of the Service Configuration (CSCFG) file. This is true in the majority of the cases however I think the following two clarifications are necessary:

  1. Because the attribute is present in the Service Definition (CSDEF) file the correct statement is that physicalDirectory attribute value is relative to the location of the Service Definition (CSDEF) file instead. Of course if you use Visual Studio to build your folder structure you can always assume that the Service Configuration (CSCFG) and the Service Definition (CSDEF) files are placed in the same folder. If you build your project manually you should be careful how you set the physicalDirectory attribute. This is of course important if you want to use relative paths in the attribute.
  2. This one I think is much more important than the first one, and it states that you can use absolute paths in the physicalDirectory attribute. The physicalDirectory attribute can contain any valid absolute path on the machine where you build the package. This means that you can point cspack.exe to include any random folder from your local machine as your site’s root.

Here is how this works.

What cspack.exe does is to take the content of the folder configured in physicalDirectory attribute and copy it under [role]/sitesroot/[num] folder in the package. Here is how my package structure looked like (follow the path in the address line):




During deployment IIS on the cloud VM is configured to point the site to sitesroot\[num] folder, and serve the content from there. Here is how it is deployed in the cloud:




And here is the IIS configuration for this cloud VM:




Feed You can follow this conversation by subscribing to the comment feed for this post.


I have noticed that if you use cspack.exe, the value you set in your csdef file for the physicalDirectory attribute can lead to strange behavior and should NOT contain capital letters if you supply a relative (to the csdef file) path. If you supply an absolute path, the driveletter should be lowercase.
Cspack won't give you an error, but there won't be a sitesroot folder in the generated package!

For example, let's say I have a folder (C:\deploy) that contains a .csdef file and a subfolder that represents my webroot (C:\deploy\WebServer). The subfolder contains a web.config file and a bin folder with some assemblies. I want this WebServer folder to be my root.

I tried the following combinations for physicalDirectory in the .csdef:
- C:\deploy\WebServer -> No sitesroot folder
- C:\deploy\WebServer\bin -> Sitesroot had bin folder contents.
- C:\deploy\WebServer\ -> No sitesroot folder
- c:\deploy\WebServer\ -> OK!
- c:\deploy\WebServer -> No sitesroot folder

- WebServer -> No sitesroot folder
- WebServer\ -> No sitesroot folder
- . (only a dot) -> Sitesroot had deploy folder contents
- webserver -> OK!
- webserver\ -> OK!

Notice the difference in upper/lowercase letters and in some cases the influence of the trailing backslash.

Post a comment

Comments are moderated, and will not appear on this weblog until the author has approved them.

If you have a TypeKey or TypePad account, please Sign In